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《民法典》解读之建设工程合同
发布(bu)时间:2021-05-07 浏览次(ci)数:193

前言

2020年5月(yue)(yue)28日(ri),十三(san)届全国(guo)(guo)人大(da)三(san)次会议表(biao)决通过的《中华人民共和国(guo)(guo)民法(fa)(fa)典(dian)》(以(yi)下简称《民法(fa)(fa)典(dian)》),将(jiang)从2021年1月(yue)(yue)1日(ri)起(qi)施行,自此我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)也将(jiang)步入民法(fa)(fa)典(dian)时代。《民法(fa)(fa)典(dian)》被称为(wei)“社会生(sheng)活(huo)的百科全书(shu)”,是(shi)新中国(guo)(guo)第一部以(yi)法(fa)(fa)典(dian)命名(ming)的法(fa)(fa)律,在法(fa)(fa)律体系中居(ju)于基础(chu)性地位(wei),也是(shi)市场(chang)经(jing)济的基本(ben)法(fa)(fa),民法(fa)(fa)典(dian)对我(wo)(wo)们生(sheng)活(huo)的影响(xiang)也不言(yan)而喻。

本文主(zhu)要着眼于(yu)《民(min)(min)法典(dian)》对(dui)(dui)建设工程合(he)同的(de)规定,分(fen)析《民(min)(min)法典(dian)》相对(dui)(dui)于(yu)原有立法有何改变(bian),并(bing)探讨《民(min)(min)法典(dian)》施行后(hou)对(dui)(dui)于(yu)建设工程领域的(de)影响(xiang)。

                                               

一、概述

1体系(xi)角(jiao)度(du)

《民法(fa)典(dian)》在第三编合(he)同(tong)编中(zhong)(zhong)单设(she)一章(zhang),即“第十八(ba)章(zhang)建(jian)设(she)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)合(he)同(tong)”,专门规范(fan)建(jian)设(she)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)合(he)同(tong)法(fa)律关系。这(zhei)一章(zhang)共21条,即《民法(fa)典(dian)》第七百八(ba)十八(ba)条到第八(ba)百零(ling)八(ba)条,这(zhei)21条规定(ding)主要以《中(zhong)(zhong)华人民共和(he)国合(he)同(tong)法(fa)》(以下简称《合(he)同(tong)法(fa)》)第十六章(zhang)为基础,并结合(he)了(le)《最高人民法(fa)院关于审理建(jian)设(she)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)(gong)合(he)同(tong)纠纷案件适用(yong)法(fa)律问题的解释(一)》(以下简称:《建(jian)设(she)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)(gong)合(he)同(tong)解释(一)》)的部(bu)分(fen)条文,进行适当修改后形成了(le)如今出(chu)台的《民法(fa)典(dian)》建(jian)设(she)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)合(he)同(tong)一章(zhang)。

2具体改变

经过统计(ji),这(zhei)章的(de)21条(tiao)中,有(you)10条(tiao)与(yu)原来立法(fa)的(de)原文完(wan)全一(yi)致;有(you)9条(tiao)基(ji)于体(ti)系变化和(he)逻辑严谨的(de)角度(du),对某些字(zi)词进行了(le)改(gai)动(dong)(dong),如将(jiang)“肢(zhi)解(jie)”改(gai)为(wei)(wei)“支解(jie)”,将(jiang)“违(wei)(wei)法(fa)转(zhuan)包”改(gai)为(wei)(wei)“转(zhuan)包”等(因为(wei)(wei)法(fa)律禁(jin)止转(zhuan)包,所以所有(you)的(de)转(zhuan)包都是违(wei)(wei)法(fa)的(de),就没有(you)必(bi)要在“转(zhuan)包”之前加(jia)上(shang)“违(wei)(wei)法(fa)”来进行限定了(le)),虽(sui)然有(you)所改(gai)动(dong)(dong),但是不影响整体(ti)的(de)理(li)解(jie)和(he)适用;还有(you)2条(tiao)在原有(you)立法(fa)的(de)基(ji)础(chu)上(shang)进行了(le)实质性更(geng)改(gai),分别是第793条(tiao)和(he)第806条(tiao),将(jiang)在下文进行重点解(jie)读。


二、重点条文详悉

1第793条

第(di)793条主要(yao)是由(you)《建设工(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)合(he)同(tong)解释(shi)(一)》第(di)2条、第(di)3条整(zheng)合(he)修(xiu)改(gai)(gai)而来(lai),其中最(zui)重要(yao)的(de)改(gai)(gai)变应该是第(di)793条第(di)一款对于《建设工(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)合(he)同(tong)解释(shi)(一)》第(di)2条的(de)修(xiu)改(gai)(gai)。

1

上(shang)述条(tiao)文主要是(shi)对于在(zai)建(jian)设工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)(gong)合(he)(he)同无效情形下,如何处理(li)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)价(jia)款问题的(de)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)。从两(liang)个条(tiao)文的(de)对比中可以(yi)看出,民(min)法(fa)(fa)典(dian)删(shan)除了《建(jian)设工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)(gong)合(he)(he)同解(jie)释(一(yi))》第(di)2条(tiao)中“经竣工(gong)(gong)验(yan)收合(he)(he)格”里的(de)“竣工(gong)(gong)”二字(zi),虽然只(zhi)删(shan)去了两(liang)个字(zi),但法(fa)(fa)律意义却大不相同。依(yi)据原(yuan)司法(fa)(fa)解(jie)释的(de)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding),在(zai)建(jian)设工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)(gong)合(he)(he)同无效情形下,只(zhi)有“已竣工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)”经验(yan)收合(he)(he)格后,承(cheng)包(bao)人(ren)才能请求(qiu)发包(bao)人(ren)参(can)照合(he)(he)同约定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)支(zhi)付工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)价(jia)款,民(min)法(fa)(fa)典(dian)删(shan)去“竣工(gong)(gong)”二字(zi)后,实际上(shang)是(shi)扩大了可以(yi)请求(qiu)发包(bao)人(ren)参(can)照合(he)(he)同约定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)支(zhi)付工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)价(jia)款的(de)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)范围(wei),即只(zhi)要经验(yan)收合(he)(he)格,单项工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)、阶段(duan)性工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)承(cheng)包(bao)人(ren)也可以(yi)请求(qiu)发包(bao)人(ren)支(zhi)付一(yi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)比例(li)的(de)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)价(jia)款,防止发包(bao)人(ren)不当得(de)利,这(zhei)也彰显(xian)了《民(min)法(fa)(fa)典(dian)》第(di)六条(tiao)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)“公(gong)平原(yuan)则(ze)”。


虽然这(zhei)一(yi)款(kuan)(kuan)的(de)(de)(de)前半句扩(kuo)大了(le)(le)可(ke)以请求支(zhi)(zhi)付工(gong)(gong)程款(kuan)(kuan)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)程范(fan)围,但是(shi)从条文的(de)(de)(de)后(hou)半句来看(kan),却(que)缩减了(le)(le)可(ke)以得(de)到(dao)支(zhi)(zhi)付的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)程款(kuan)(kuan)的(de)(de)(de)比(bi)例并且增(zeng)加了(le)(le)支(zhi)(zhi)付工(gong)(gong)程价款(kuan)(kuan)的(de)(de)(de)不(bu)确定性。原(yuan)司法(fa)解释中的(de)(de)(de)“支(zhi)(zhi)付工(gong)(gong)程价款(kuan)(kuan)”被(bei)修(xiu)改(gai)成(cheng)了(le)(le)“折价补(bu)偿(chang)(chang)”,“补(bu)偿(chang)(chang)”就说明(ming)了(le)(le)很大程度上(shang)不(bu)会是(shi)对验收合(he)格工(gong)(gong)程支(zhi)(zhi)付等值的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)程款(kuan)(kuan),而是(shi)按(an)一(yi)定比(bi)例对承包(bao)人进行补(bu)偿(chang)(chang),至于补(bu)偿(chang)(chang)的(de)(de)(de)比(bi)例问题,我(wo)们也(ye)期待后(hou)续的(de)(de)(de)司法(fa)解释会给出(chu)答案。另外,原(yuan)条文中的(de)(de)(de)“应予支(zhi)(zhi)持”也(ye)被(bei)修(xiu)改(gai)成(cheng)了(le)(le)“可(ke)以”,也(ye)就是(shi)说,对于承包(bao)人请求发包(bao)人支(zhi)(zhi)付工(gong)(gong)程价款(kuan)(kuan)(折价补(bu)偿(chang)(chang))的(de)(de)(de)主张,立法(fa)上(shang)给予了(le)(le)法(fa)官更大的(de)(de)(de)自由裁量权,也(ye)就是(shi)对于承包(bao)人能否取得(de)工(gong)(gong)程价款(kuan)(kuan)存在(zai)了(le)(le)更多的(de)(de)(de)不(bu)确定性,使得(de)承包(bao)人在(zai)签订(ding)的(de)(de)(de)建设(she)工(gong)(gong)程合(he)同被(bei)认定为无(wu)效后(hou)所要承担的(de)(de)(de)风险大大增(zeng)加。

2第806条

《民法典》建(jian)设工(gong)程(cheng)合同(tong)这一(yi)(yi)章(zhang)存在(zai)(zai)较大改动的(de)另一(yi)(yi)个条(tiao)文就是第(di)806条(tiao),这一(yi)(yi)条(tiao)主(zhu)要是在(zai)(zai)《建(jian)设工(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)合同(tong)解释(shi)(一(yi)(yi))》第(di)四条(tiao)、第(di)九条(tiao)和第(di)十(shi)条(tiao)的(de)基础(chu)上修改而来,其中被(bei)广为(wei)议(yi)论(lun)的(de)是第(di)806条(tiao)第(di)二款对于《建(jian)设工(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)合同(tong)解释(shi)(一(yi)(yi))》第(di)九条(tiao)的(de)删(shan)改。

2

上(shang)述条文主要是(shi)(shi)对(dui)(dui)承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)合法(fa)(fa)(fa)解(jie)(jie)除(chu)合同(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)情(qing)形(xing)的(de)(de)(de)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding),《建(jian)设(she)工(gong)程施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)合同(tong)(tong)(tong)解(jie)(jie)释(shi)(一(yi)(yi)(yi))》第九条规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)了(le)3种(zhong)情(qing)形(xing),民(min)法(fa)(fa)(fa)典第806条保留了(le)后(hou)(hou)两(liang)种(zhong)情(qing)形(xing),删除(chu)了(le)“未(wei)(wei)按(an)(an)(an)约定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)支(zhi)(zhi)付(fu)(fu)工(gong)程价款”这一(yi)(yi)(yi)情(qing)形(xing)。这看似是(shi)(shi)删掉了(le)承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)主张(zhang)解(jie)(jie)除(chu)合同(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)(yi)种(zhong)情(qing)形(xing),不利于承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)一(yi)(yi)(yi)方(fang),但(dan)是(shi)(shi)实际(ji)上(shang)却不是(shi)(shi)这样的(de)(de)(de)。在原司法(fa)(fa)(fa)解(jie)(jie)释(shi)的(de)(de)(de)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)下,若(ruo)发(fa)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)未(wei)(wei)按(an)(an)(an)约定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)支(zhi)(zhi)付(fu)(fu)工(gong)程价款,致使(shi)(shi)承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)无(wu)法(fa)(fa)(fa)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong),经催告(gao)(gao)后(hou)(hou)在合理期(qi)(qi)限内仍未(wei)(wei)按(an)(an)(an)约定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)支(zhi)(zhi)付(fu)(fu)工(gong)程价款的(de)(de)(de),承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)才(cai)可以解(jie)(jie)除(chu)合同(tong)(tong)(tong)。也就是(shi)(shi)说(shuo),承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)主张(zhang)因发(fa)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)未(wei)(wei)按(an)(an)(an)合同(tong)(tong)(tong)约定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)支(zhi)(zhi)付(fu)(fu)工(gong)程价款而解(jie)(jie)除(chu)合同(tong)(tong)(tong),必须满(man)足“致使(shi)(shi)承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)无(wu)法(fa)(fa)(fa)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)”这一(yi)(yi)(yi)条件。但(dan)《民(min)法(fa)(fa)(fa)典》施(shi)(shi)(shi)行(xing)后(hou)(hou),依据其第563条合同(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)法(fa)(fa)(fa)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)解(jie)(jie)除(chu)中的(de)(de)(de)第(三)项(xiang)“当事人(ren)(ren)(ren)一(yi)(yi)(yi)方(fang)迟延履行(xing)主要债务,经催告(gao)(gao)后(hou)(hou)在合理期(qi)(qi)限内仍未(wei)(wei)履行(xing)”之规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding),对(dui)(dui)于建(jian)设(she)工(gong)程合同(tong)(tong)(tong)履行(xing)而言,只要发(fa)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)未(wei)(wei)按(an)(an)(an)约定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)交付(fu)(fu)合同(tong)(tong)(tong)价款、且在催告(gao)(gao)后(hou)(hou)未(wei)(wei)履行(xing),无(wu)论承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)能否(fou)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong),都可以解(jie)(jie)除(chu)合同(tong)(tong)(tong)。所以对(dui)(dui)于发(fa)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)未(wei)(wei)支(zhi)(zhi)付(fu)(fu)工(gong)程价款的(de)(de)(de)情(qing)况下,承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)主张(zhang)解(jie)(jie)除(chu)合同(tong)(tong)(tong),从《民(min)法(fa)(fa)(fa)典》整(zheng)体来看,是(shi)(shi)减(jian)少(shao)了(le)“致使(shi)(shi)承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)无(wu)法(fa)(fa)(fa)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)”这一(yi)(yi)(yi)条件,因此(ci)是(shi)(shi)有利于承(cheng)包(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)人(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)。

三、总(zong)结(jie)

从整(zheng)体上来(lai)看,《民法(fa)(fa)典》对建设工程(cheng)(cheng)合(he)同(tong)的(de)调整(zheng)不大,但是(shi)(shi)其中重要(yao)条(tiao)款的(de)变(bian)化也是(shi)(shi)值得(de)注(zhu)意的(de)。尤其是(shi)(shi)《民法(fa)(fa)典》第793条(tiao)的(de)规定,使得(de)合(he)同(tong)被认(ren)定为无(wu)效后,承包人所要(yao)承担(dan)的(de)风险大大增加,这也体现出国家立法(fa)(fa)机关(guan)对建设工程(cheng)(cheng)领域内合(he)同(tong)效力(li)问题的(de)关(guan)注(zhu)。

所以,承包(bao)人(ren)在订立合(he)(he)同(tong)时(shi)一定(ding)要注(zhu)意对合(he)(he)同(tong)的(de)合(he)(he)法合(he)(he)规性审查,避免产生合(he)(he)同(tong)无效(xiao)的(de)情形,造成严重损失(shi)。另外,如果已经(jing)到(dao)(dao)了合(he)(he)同(tong)被认定(ding)无效(xiao)的(de)地步,也要注(zhu)意《民法典》实施之(zhi)后,合(he)(he)同(tong)被认定(ding)为无效(xiao)后承包(bao)方能得到(dao)(dao)补偿(chang)的(de)条(tiao)件从“经(jing)竣工(gong)验收合(he)(he)格”扩大(da)到(dao)(dao)“经(jing)验收合(he)(he)格”,这就意味着即(ji)使未竣工(gong)验收合(he)(he)格,在终止施工(gong)、工(gong)程烂(lan)尾等情形下,承包(bao)人(ren)也可(ke)以对无效(xiao)合(he)(he)同(tong)中通过验收的(de)单项(xiang)工(gong)程、阶(jie)段性工(gong)程主张(zhang)折价补偿(chang)。